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India Pakistan Agreement 1972
At the end of this historic summit, India and Pakistan signed the Lahore Declaration, a bilateral agreement and governance treaty that was to be ratified later in the same year by the parliaments of the two nations. As stated in the Simla Agreement 27 years earlier, the Lahore Declaration reaffirmed, inter alia, the need for a bilateral resolution of the Kashmir issue. Six months after the liberation of Bangladesh, then-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and former Pakistani President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto met in Shimla on July 2, 1972 to sign an agreement providing a framework for the mutual settlement of their differences. This Agreement shall be subject to ratification by both countries in accordance with their respective constitutional procedures and shall enter into force from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification.  The Delhi Agreement on the Repatriation of War and Civilian Internees is a tripartite agreement between the above-mentioned states, signed on 28 August 1973. The agreement was signed by Kamal Hossain, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Government of Bangladesh, Sardar Swaran Singh, Minister of Foreign Affairs of India, and Aziz Ahmed, Minister of State for Defence and Foreign Affairs of the Government of Pakistan.    The agreement did not prevent relations between the two countries from deteriorating until armed conflict, most recently during the 1999 Kargil war. In Operation Meghdoot in 1984, India seized the entire inhospitable Siachen Glacier region, where the border was not clearly defined in the agreement (perhaps because the area was deemed too arid to be controversial); This was considered by Pakistan as a violation of the Simla agreement. Most of the deaths that followed in the Siachen conflict were caused by natural disasters, for example. B avalanches in 2010, 2012 and 2016. In addition to the withdrawal of troops and the return of prisoners from the 1971 war, the Simla Agreement was a plan for India and Pakistan to maintain friendly and neighbourly relations.
As part of the agreement, the two belligerent countries promised to renounce conflicts and confrontations and make efforts to establish peace, friendship and cooperation. The agreement emphasizes respect for each other`s sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity. It also mentions non-interference in the internal affairs of the other and the flaw in hostile propaganda. Indira Gandhi`s reputation for clever state art is widely praised, even by her most virulent critics. Their quest for peacemaking was as bold as India`s approach to the 1972 peace conference in Shimla shows. But the fall of 1972 is fascinating for what it did not reflect – India did not use the fruits of the 1971 war victory to achieve a beneficial geopolitical arrangement. Finally, for the first time since the partition of a position of strength and prestige (prisoners of war), India negotiated with Pakistan; 93,000 Pakistani prisoners of war, including the entire military leadership in eastern Pakistan, surrendered to Indian forces. India had also conquered strategic locations in Kashmir and 5,000 square miles of Pakistani territory in Sindh and southern Punjab. In 2001, at the invitation of Prime Minister Vajpayee, then-Pakistani President General Pervez Musharraf visited India on July 14-16 for a historic two-day summit in Agra.