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Berlin Agreement To Protect
Under Bismarck`s “peripheral distraction” system, the treaty depended to a large extent on its prestige. [Citation required] When Emperor William II left bismarck in 1890, Russia requested the renewal of the contract; Germany refused. Bismarck`s successor, Leo de Caprivi, did not see the need to appease Russia. The German foreign policy establishment unanimously opposed a revival because it contradicted so many other German positions on Austria, Britain, Romania and Italy. Thus, the reinsurance contract was contrary to the secret contract of 1883, in which Germany and Austria promised to protect Romania. Russia was not aware of this treaty.  Emperor William II, still very influential in foreign policy, believed that his personal friendship with Tsar Alexander III would be enough to guarantee new friendly diplomatic relations. His priority was to establish better relations with Britain. Anglo-Russian relations had long been marred by Russia`s aspiration to take control of the strait that connects the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. London feared that Russian expansion to the South would threaten British colonial interests in the Middle East. France, desperately seeking an ally, offered financial assistance for the reconstruction of the Russian economy and, in 1894, successfully developed the Franco-Russian alliance to end French isolation.
The ouster of Bismarck, the erratic temperament of William II and the uncertain policies of the men who followed Bismarck were the common causes of increasing international instability.  Bismarck had a long-term policy of peacekeeping in Europe, and increasing competition between Russia and Austria-Hungary for Balkan domination threatened that peace. Bismarck said an agreement with Russia was essential to prevent a Russian alliance with France – he has always had a policy of keeping France diplomatically isolated to avoid a two-sided war with Germany, which was fighting both France and Russia. Bismarck risked the extension of the Russian zone of influence to the Mediterranean and diplomatic tensions with Vienna. The 1856 Paris Peace Treaty, which ended the Crimean War, had made the Black Sea a neutral territory. The treaty had protected the Ottoman Empire, ended the Holy Alliance (Austria, Prussia and Russia) and weakened Russia`s position in Europe. In 1870, Russia relied on the doctrine of rebus sic stantibus and effectively ended the treaty by violating the provisions relating to the neutrality of the Black Sea. The great powers were increasingly convinced that the Ottoman Empire would not be able to maintain its territories in Europe.  A Confidentiality Agreement (NDA) or Confidentiality Disclosure Agreement (CDA) protects research results that have not yet been published, including before completing a patent application.